The graves of Fatimah (Muhammad's daughter) and Hasan (Muhammad's grandson), across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi, and Abu Bakr (first caliph and the father of Muhammad's wife, Aisha), and of Umar (Umar ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are also here.
The mosque dates back to the time of Muhammad, but has been twice reconstructed.
At first, these tribes were allied with Jewish rulers, but later they revolted and became independent.
the Jewish rulers lost control of the city to Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj.
Its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, and whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins (bad deeds), then he will incur the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people." By the fourth century, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, and there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century AD: the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Qurayza, and Banu Nadir.
The situation changed after the arrival from Yemen of two new Arab tribes named Banu Aus (or Banu 'Aws) and Banu Khazraj.
It is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer (qibla) from Jerusalem to Mecca according to a Hadith.
Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram (area closed to non-Muslims) of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area.
It is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejaz territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality.
An immense plain extends to the south; in every direction the view is bounded by hills and mountains.
It was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487.
Masjid al-Qiblatain is another mosque also historically important to Muslims.
Medina was Muhammad's destination after his Hijrah from Mecca, and became the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire, first under Muhammad's leadership, and then under the first four Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali.