Innovative concepts are likely to come up using modern research approaches to evaluate the issue of blood stains of the Turin Shroud.Nor can we rule out the possibility that religious implications of the new findings on the Turin Shroud might be envisaged.
These days, to establish that blood indisputably belongs to an MNS positive individual of the AB group, and to exclude DNA contamination, high-specificity techniques with monoclonal antibodies and molecular studies on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are needed.
Indeed, consistent with DNA contamination on the Turin Shroud, sequences from multiple subjects of different ethnic origins have been recently detected on the human mitochondrial genome extracted from dust particles of the linen.
Despite this, the results obtained by C-14 AMS dating confirm the reliability of the new chloroform-based pretreatment in removing the contaminations.
Also in these cases, spectroscopic techniques were used to compare the effectiveness of the ABA and the new treatments in removing the contaminants. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
There is a density of encrustation coating Shroud sample p2574_9 which is not present on the other two samples.
The “frosty” 6 contaminant is also not present on the Mark Evans image of the Shroud.15 As ‘the "frosty" coating is almost certainly a plant gum in the Raes sample’ 6 it is likely to be a plant gum in the Oxford sample.
In the case of incomplete removal prior to dating, the resins produce an apparent aging of the samples.
Mechanical cleaning using traditional tools and the standard pretreatment acid-base-acid (ABA) protocol are not sufficient to remove such contaminants, while the use of organic solvents, in particular petroleum solvents and chlorine-based products, can be effective.
Conceivably enough, the ongoing debate will be fierce and passionate, especially in the media.