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It was not script, but rather the invention of the more economical storage medium paper that caused the oral transmission of news to be eventually replaced to some degree.The increasing circulation of initially confidential diplomatic messages due to dissemination among friends, secretaries and clients became a problem for political agents relying on secrecy.European courts and cities, but also the church, merchants' societies, religious orders and universities, had been establishing messenger systems ever since the late Middle Ages.

This led to the development of transnational connections between locations that were temporally and spatially linked over wide geographical and cultural expanses.

A comprehensive network for news reporting was still missing, however.

On the other hand, the Fuggers also did collect general news that was separately archived from company correspondence.

Commonly known as Fugger newspapers, these reports mostly deal with military and political events.

When such (national) linguistic or regional-political borders have been surmounted, it is possible to speak of transnational communication.

Here, transnational is to be distinguished from international, for the communication not only crosses the borders between states and institutions, but also between groups and individuals as well as actors who cannot be accurately classified according to a linguistically or regionally and politically defined concept of nationalism.

News becomes national communication when its scope encompasses an extended group with a national consciousness.

Since the categories of nationalism before 1800 are still imprecise, the word "national" is mostly a linguistic or regional term of reference.

The human need for news and communication about news has been fulfilled in various ways in different eras and cultures by diverse technical means.

Beginning with local dissemination by means of word-of-mouth information from person to person about events near and far, the news made its way via random lines of communication and sporadically organized messenger routes or permanently institutionalized postal networks.

The traditional locations for news transmission and discussions about it were ports, marketplaces, inns paully do starb jorg starcz ein gastgeb, der , lavierte und kolorierte Federzeichnung, 1470, unbekannter Künstler, in: Hausbuch der Mendelschen Zwölfbrüderstiftung, Band 1, Nürnberg 1426–1549; Bildquelle: Stadtbibliothek Nürnberg, Amb.

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